DID YOU KNOW THERE ARE BASICALLY 3 TYPES OF EXERCISES.
Many people in this busy schedule of life dont have enough physical activity and exercise. Basically people need to know the various types of exercise which will help to stay physically fit and boost immunity.
WHAT IS PHYSICAL ACTIVITY ? : Physical activity is any activity that involves major muscle groups, including routine daily activities such as shopping or climbing stairs.
WHAT IS EXERCISE ?: Exercise includes any activity done with a goal of improving or maintaining physical fitness.
WHAT IS PHYSICAL FITNESS ? : Physical fitness can be described as the ability to carry out daily tasks with vigor and alertness, without excessive fatigue, and with ample energy to enjoy leisure time pursuits
Types of exercise
There are three main types of exercise:
- Aerobic exercise
- Resistance training
- Stretching exercise
Exercise has many benefits. It can:
- Burn calories, which helps people control their weight
- Help control blood sugar levels in people with diabetes
- Lower blood pressure, especially in people with high blood pressure
- Lower stress and help with depression
- Keep bones strong, so they don’t get thin and break easily
- Lower the chance of dying from heart disease
DO I NEED TO GET ANY TESTS DONE BEFORE STARTING EXERCISE ?
Before getting into details about each exercise , you need to know that many people do not need testing before starting to exercise. But some people with diabetes or multiple risk factors for heart disease may need an exercise test before starting an exercise program.
An exercise test is performed in a doctor’s office or hospital and usually involves walking or running on a treadmill with monitoring leads on the chest.
ARE YOU READY TO START EXERCISE ?
Before you start exercise , you should have an exercise program
EXERCISE PROGRAM — An exercise program should include aerobic exercise, resistance training, and stretching.
Warm up — Exercise sessions should begin with a 5- to 10-minute period of warm-up. Start with some low-level aerobic exercises (walking, stationary cycling ) and then do stretches and flexibility movements. The warm-up period allows for a gradual increase in the heart rate and may reduce the risk of injuries.
Workout — It is a good idea to mix up aerobic exercise, strength training, and stretching so as to keep the workout fun and interesting.
If you do not normally get much exercise, start by exercising for a few minutes at a low intensity (eg, walking). As physical fitness improves, you can slowly begin to exercise harder, more frequently, or for a longer time, with a goal of getting at least 30 minutes of exercise on five days each week.
WHAT PRECAUTIONS TO TAKE BEFORE , DURING OR AFTER EXERCISE ?
- Remember to drink fluids during and after exercise. Thirst is a good indicator that more fluids are needed.
- Do not exercise outdoors if the temperature is too hot or too cold.
- In cooler weather, it is better to wear layers of clothes while exercising outdoors. A layer of clothing can be removed if needed.
- Wear supportive, well-fitting running or walking shoes. Replace shoes when signs of deterioration develop (eg, cracking, separation of shoe from the sole, imprint of the foot in the insole).
- Aerobic exercise involves exertion such as walking, running, or swimming, which increases the flow of blood through the heart.
- Aerobic means “with oxygen” and refers to working at a level where the large muscles get adequate oxygen from the blood to sustain prolonged activity.
- Spontaneous activity (fidgeting- moving hands and feet ) can burn 100 to 800 calories/day.
- Walking is an excellent aerobic activity. Cycling, rowing, stair machine climbing, and other endurance-type activities are also great. Swimming and water aerobics are excellent for people with arthritis.
- Low-impact activities are recommended because they are less likely to result in physical injury. Running on a street is a higher-impact activity because of the stresses on the feet and legs as they strike the ground with each step.
- The exercises should be enjoyable and simple to carry out to encourage a long-term commitment. It may be best to vary the exercises you do each week (such as swim on three of the days and walk on three of the days) to decrease repetitive strain to your muscles and other tissues.
- If you are breathless, fatigued, and sweating, you have worked hard enough. During moderate-intensity exercise, you should be able to carry on a conversation.
Examples of moderate physical activity
A minimum of 30 minutes of moderate-intensity aerobic exercise (eg, brisk walking) is recommended on five days each week. Alternately, you can perform 20 minutes of vigorous-intensity aerobic exercise (eg, jogging) on three days each week. This recommendation is in addition to routine, light-intensity activities of daily living (eg, cooking, casual walking, shopping, etc)
- Resistance training can be done with weights, machines, or exercise bands.
- It should be performed at least twice a week with at least 48 hours of rest between sessions.
- Resistance training is commonly described in terms of “sets” of “repetitions.
- A repetition is a single completed back and forth motion of a resistance exercise, such as bending and extending the arm at the elbow while holding a weight in the hand.
- A set is a number of repetitions done without resting.
Most experts recommend at least one set of exercises, including 8 to 12 repetitions, for each of the major muscle groups.
Begin with minimal resistance (light weights, resistive bands, or even a can of food) to allow the muscles and other tissues to adapt. Examples of exercises for the upper body are shown in a figure
TIPS WHILE DOING RESISTANCE EXERCISES
- It is important to use proper technique.
- If you belong to a health club or gym you might ask a trainer to observe technique.
- Be sure to breathe normally while lifting weights.
- Do not hold the breath; instead, exhale with exertion.
- Do not perform resistance training if you are in pain or have swelling anywhere.
- Stretching and flexibility exercises should include every major joint (hip, back, shoulder, knee, upper trunk, neck).
- It is best not to stretch “cold muscles, so engage in a few minutes of low-intensity aerobic exercise first.
- Movement into a stretch should be slow, and the stretch itself should be held for approximately 10 to 30 seconds.
- Do not bounce while beginning or performing a stretch.
Stretching exercises are shown in a figure
Each exercise should be performed several times. Stretch and yoga classes are also a good way to remain flexible. The stretch should not cause pain but only mild discomfort.
- Cool down exercises should be done for approximately five minutes at the end of an exercise session.
- Similar to the warm-up period, cool-down may include low-level aerobic exercise (such as slow walking), calisthenics and stretching.
- This allows the body to clear acid that has built up in the muscles and allows more blood back into the circulation because less is sent to the muscles.
- This helps to prevent muscle cramps and sudden drops in blood pressure that can cause lightheadedness.
WHAT IF YOU HAVE NO TIME TO EXERCISE :
If your exercise program does not fit into your daily life, try to find ways to integrate exercise so that it can remain a part of your daily routine. For example, take the stairs instead of the elevator, park in a space that is further from the door, or take a longer route to walk from one place to another.
WHEN TO SEEK HELP
In order to exercise safely, it’s important to know the warning signs that could indicate a problem. If any of these problems occur, you should stop the exercise or activity and contact your health care provider immediately:
- Pain or pressure in the chest, arms, throat, jaw or back
- Nausea or vomiting during or after exercise
- Palpitations or heart flutters or a sudden burst of a very fast heart rate
- Inability to catch your breath
- Lightheadedness, dizziness or feeling faint during exercise (feeling lightheaded after exercise may mean that a longer cool-down period is needed)
- Feeling very weak or very tired
- Pains in joints, shins, heels or calf muscles (this is not an emergency but should be evaluated if it does not resolve)
Also know : The following organizations also provide reliable health information.
- National Library of Medicine – (www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/healthtopics.html)
- Centers for Disease Control and Prevention – (www.cdc.gov)
- American Heart Association – (www.americanheart.org)
- American Council on Exercise – (www.acefitness.org)